from os import listdir
from os.path import isfile, join
from sys import exc_info, stdout
from glob import glob

from pygame import Color, Rect, Surface
from pygame.image import load
from pygame.transform import flip
from pygame.locals import *

from Animation import Animation
from Vector import Vector

class Sprite(Animation):

    def __init__(self, parent, framerate=None):
        Animation.__init__(self, parent, self.shift_frame, framerate)
        self.frames = []
        self.mirrored = False
        self.alpha = 255
        self.locations = []
        self.framesets = [Frameset(self, framerate=framerate)]
        self.motion_overflow = Vector()
        self.display_surface = self.get_display_surface()

    def __getattr__(self, name):
        if name in ("location", "rect"):
            return self.locations[0]
        if hasattr(Animation, "__getattr__"):
            return Animation.__getattr__(self, name)
        raise AttributeError, name

    def set_frameset(self, identifier):
        if isinstance(identifier, str):
            for ii, frameset in enumerate(self.framesets):
                if == identifier:
                    identifier = ii
        self.frameset_index = identifier
        if self.get_current_frameset().length() > 1:

    def register_interval(self):

    def get_current_frameset(self):
        return self.framesets[self.frameset_index]

    def update_location_size(self):
        size = self.get_current_frameset().rect.size
        for location in self.locations:
            location.size = size

    def set_framerate(self, framerate):

    def load_from_path(self, path, transparency=False, ppa=True, key=None,
                       query=None, omit=False):
        if isfile(path):
            paths = [path]
            if query:
                paths = sorted(glob(join(path, query)))
                paths = [join(path, name) for name in sorted(listdir(path))]
        for path in paths:
            img = load(path)
            if transparency:
                if ppa:
                    frame = img.convert_alpha()
                    frame = self.fill_colorkey(img, key)
                frame = img.convert()
            self.add_frame(frame, omit)

    def fill_colorkey(self, img, key=None):
        if not key:
            key = (255, 0, 255)
        img = img.convert_alpha()
        frame = Surface(img.get_size())
        frame.blit(img, (0, 0))
        return frame

    def add_frame(self, frame, omit=False):
        if not omit:
            frameset = self.get_current_frameset()
            if frameset.length() > 1:

    def shift_frame(self):

    def get_current_frame(self):
        return self.frames[self.get_current_frameset().get_current_id()]

    def move(self, dx=0, dy=0):
        for location in self.locations:
            location.move_ip(dx, dy)

    def reset_motion_overflow(self):
        for location in self.locations:

    def collide(self, other):
        if not isinstance(other, Rect):
            other = other.rect
        for location in self.locations:
            if location.colliderect(other):
                return location

    def mirror(self):
        frames = self.frames
        for ii, frame in enumerate(frames):
             frames[ii] = flip(frame, True, False)
        self.mirrored = not self.mirrored

    def clear_frames(self):
        self.frames = []
        for frameset in self.framesets:
            frameset.order = []

    def add_location(self, topleft=None, offset=(0, 0), count=1, base=0):
        if topleft is not None:
            for ii in xrange(count):
                    self, Rect(topleft, self.locations[0].size)))
            base = self.locations[base]
            current_offset = list(offset)
            for ii in xrange(count):
                current_offset[0] += offset[0]
                current_offset[1] += offset[1]
        return self.locations[-1]

    def fade(self, length=0, out=None, index=None):
        if index is None:
            for location in self.locations:
                location.fader.start(length, out)
            self.locations[index].fader.start(length, out)

    def set_alpha(self, alpha):
        self.alpha = alpha
        for frame in self.frames:
        for location in self.locations:

    def add_frameset(self, order=[], framerate=None, name=None, switch=False):
        frameset = Frameset(self, order, framerate, name)
        if switch:
            self.set_frameset(len(self.framesets) - 1)
        return frameset

    def hide(self):
        for location in self.locations:

    def unhide(self):
        for location in self.locations:

    def toggle_hidden(self):
        for location in self.locations:

    def is_hidden(self):
        return all(location.is_hidden() for location in self.locations)

    def remove_locations(self, location=None):
        if location:
            self.locations = self.locations[:1]

    def reverse(self, frameset=None):
        if frameset:
            for frameset in self.framesets:

    def update(self, areas=None, substitute=None):
        if self.get_current_frameset().length():
            self.draw(areas, substitute)

    def draw(self, areas=None, substitute=None):
        for location in self.locations:
            location.fader.draw(areas, substitute)

class Location(Rect):

    def __init__(self, sprite, rect=(0, 0, 0, 0)):
        self.sprite = sprite
        Rect.__init__(self, rect)
        self.motion_overflow = Vector()
        self.fader = Fader(self)

    def move_ip(self, dx, dy):
        if isinstance(dx, float) or isinstance(dy, float):
            excess = self.update_motion_overflow(dx, dy)
            Rect.move_ip(self, int(dx) + excess[0], int(dy) + excess[1])
            Rect.move_ip(self, dx, dy)

    def update_motion_overflow(self, dx, dy):
        overflow = self.motion_overflow
        overflow.move(dx - int(dx), dy - int(dy))
        excess = map(int, overflow)
        overflow[0] -= int(overflow[0])
        overflow[1] -= int(overflow[1])
        return excess

    def reset_motion_overflow(self):

    def apply_motion_overflow(self, coordinates=None):
        if coordinates is None:
            coordinates = self.topleft
        return self.motion_overflow + coordinates

    def hide(self):
        self.hidden = True

    def unhide(self):
        self.hidden = False

    def toggle_hidden(self):
        self.hidden = not self.hidden

    def is_hidden(self):
        return self.hidden

class Fader(Surface):

    def __init__(self, location):
        self.location = location
        self.time_filter = location.sprite.get_game().time_filter

    def reset(self):
        self.fade_remaining = None

    def init_surface(self):
        Surface.__init__(self, self.location.size)
        if self.location.sprite.get_current_frameset().length():
            background = Surface(self.get_size())
            sprite = self.location.sprite
            key = sprite.get_current_frame().get_colorkey() or (255, 0, 255)
            self.background = background

    def set_alpha(self, alpha=None):
        if alpha is None:
            alpha = self.location.sprite.alpha
        Surface.set_alpha(self, alpha)

    def start(self, length, out=None):
        if self.fade_remaining <= 0:
            alpha = self.get_alpha()
            maximum = self.location.sprite.alpha
            if out is None:
                out = alpha == maximum
            if out and alpha > 0 or not out and alpha < maximum:
                self.fade_length = self.fade_remaining = length
                self.start_time = self.time_filter.get_ticks()
                self.fading_out = out

    def draw(self, areas=None, substitute=None):
        sprite = self.location.sprite
        if substitute is None:
            frame = sprite.get_current_frame()
            frame = substitute
        if self.fade_remaining >= 0:
            self.blit(frame, (0, 0))
            if not self.location.is_hidden():
                self.blit_to_display(self, areas)
        elif self.fade_remaining is None or self.get_alpha() >= sprite.alpha:
            if self.fade_remaining >= 0:
            if not self.location.is_hidden():
                self.blit_to_display(frame, areas)

    def blit_to_display(self, frame, areas=None):
        if not isinstance(areas, list):
            areas = [areas]
        for area in areas:
            if area:
                dest = area.left + self.location.left, \
                dest = self.location
            self.location.sprite.display_surface.blit(frame, dest, area)

    def update_alpha(self):
        remaining = self.fade_remaining = self.fade_length - \
                    (self.time_filter.get_ticks() - self.start_time)
        ratio = self.fade_length and float(remaining) / self.fade_length
        if not self.fading_out:
            ratio = 1 - ratio
        maximum = self.location.sprite.alpha
        alpha = int(ratio * maximum)
        if alpha > maximum:
            alpha = maximum
        elif alpha < 0:
            alpha = 0

    def clear(self):
        self.blit(self.background, (0, 0))

class Frameset:

    def __init__(self, sprite, order=[], framerate=None, name=None):
        self.sprite = sprite = name
        self.reversed = False
        self.order = []
        self.rect = Rect(0, 0, 0, 0)

    def add_index(self, order):
        if isinstance(order, int):
            order = [order]
        self.order += order

    def set_framerate(self, framerate):
        self.framerate = framerate

    def reset(self):
        self.current_index = 0

    def get_current_id(self):
        return self.order[self.current_index]

    def measure_rect(self):
        max_width, max_height = 0, 0
        frames = self.sprite.frames
        for index in self.order:
            frame = frames[index]
            width, height = frame.get_size()
            max_width = max(width, max_width)
            max_height = max(height, max_height)
        self.rect.size = max_width, max_height

    def shift(self):
        if len(self.order) > 1:

    def increment_index(self, increment=None):
        if increment is None:
            increment = 1 if not self.reversed else -1
        index = self.current_index + increment
        while index < 0:
            index += self.length()
        while index >= self.length():
            index -= self.length()
        self.current_index = index

    def length(self):
        return len(self.order)

    def reverse(self):
        self.reversed = not self.reversed
September 26, 2017

I made a video about my game Picture Processing for Out of Index 2017! Here is the video along with a transcript.

To save memory, video games are designed to repeat graphics. In raster-based games, image files like textures, tiles and sprites are loaded once into memory and drawn repeatedly by the program to create environments, characters, animations and text. In my puzzle game, 8 by 8 pixel tiles are used to create scenes the player has to recreate. For level 1, the tiles are a cloud, a tree, a mushroom, a character, sky, ground and rock.

An algorithm scrambles the tiles so that each tile is in the wrong memory address at the beginning of a level and the screen looks like a graphics glitch. When level 1 begins, the clouds may be where the trees should be, the mushrooms may be floating in the sky and the character may be switched with rock or the ground. The player's task is to put the tiles where they belong by swapping each tile with a tile in another memory address.

There are five levels, in order of difficulty, based on classic video games or classic video game genres.

The name of this game is taken from the Picture Processing Unit, a microprocessor designed by Nintendo for the Nintendo Entertainment System. The PPU is the hardware component responsible for translating image data into video signals for televisions and screens. It does this with a memory of 8 by 8 pixel tile data, which, along with palette and sprite attribute memory, generates each frame of a video game.

Companies often create lofty, evocative titles for hardware and products. What does the name Picture Processing Unit mean if we consider pictures something independent of a video screen? The phrase picture processing evokes the phrase image processing, a technique used to create applications such as automatic facial and emotion recognition. We often anthropomorphize electronic devices, infusing them with intelligence and souls, forgetting how much more infinitely complex the human mind is compared to a digital processor.

The game is named as a reference to Nintendo's microprocessor because the graphics are tile based, but it is also a reference to the players who are image processors, interpreting a picture from something deterministic into something non-deterministic.

The prototype of this game was created for a game jam called A Game By Its Cover where designers created video games based on imagined Nintendo game cartridges created by visual artists for an exhibition called My Famicase.

Picture Processing is based on one of the imagined cartridges from that exhibition. The cartridge's cover depicts a grid of unordered tiles and is described as a game where one inserts a game cartridge, sees a glitching screen, and meditates about the concept of beauty in imperfection. I added the idea that the player meditates into a state of transcendence until they are able to fix the game's graphics by accessing the memory telepathically.

July 19, 2017

f1. BOSS

Games are corrupt dissolutions of nature modeled on prison, ordering a census from the shadows of a vile casino, splintered into shattered glass, pushing symbols, rusted, stale, charred, ultraviolet harbingers of consumption and violence, badges without merit that host a disease of destruction and decay.

You are trapped. You are so trapped your only recourse of action is to imagine an escape route and deny your existence so fully that your dream world becomes the only reality you know. You are fleeing deeper and deeper into a chasm of self-delusion.

While you're dragging your listless, distending corpus from one cell to another, amassing rewards, upgrades, bonuses, achievements, prizes, add-ons and status boosts in rapid succession, stop to think about what's inside the boxes because each one contains a vacuous, soul-sucking nightmare.

Playing can be an awful experience that spirals one into a void of harm and chaos, one so bad it creates a cycle between the greater and lesser systems, each breaking the other's rules. One may succeed by acting in a way that ruins the world.

June 5, 2016
September 30, 2015

Edge of Life is a form I made with Babycastles and Mouth Arcade for an event in New York called Internet Yami-ichi, a flea market of internet-ish goods. We set up our table to look like a doctor's office and pharmacy and offered free examinations and medication prescriptions, a system described by one person as "a whole pharmacy and medical industrial complex".

Diagnoses were based on responses to the form and observations by our doctor during a short examination. The examination typically involved bizarre questions, toy torpedoes being thrown at people and a plastic bucket over the patient's head. The form combined ideas from Myers-Briggs Type Indicators, Codex Seraphinianus and chain-mail personality tests that tell you which TV show character you are. In our waiting room, we had Lake of Roaches installed in a stuffed bat (GIRP bat). It was really fun!

The icons for the food pyramid are from Maple Story and the gun icons are from the dingbat font Outgunned. I'm also using Outgunned to generate the items in Food Spring.

January 28, 2014


December 3, 2013

Where in the mind's prism does light shine, inward, outward, or backward, and where in a plane does it intersect, experientially and literally, while possessing itself in a dripping wet phantasm?

Fig 1.1 What happens after you turn on a video game and before it appears?

The taxonomy of fun contains the difference between gasps of desperation and exaltation, simultaneously identical and opposite; one inspires you to have sex, while the other to ejaculate perpetually. A destruction and its procession are effervescent, while free play is an inseminated shimmer hatching inside you. Unlikely to be resolved, however, in such a way, are the climaxes of transitions between isolated, consecutive game states.

You walk through a door or long-jump face first (your face, not Mario's) into a painting. A moment passes for eternity, viscerally fading from your ego, corpus, chakra, gaia, the basis of your soul. It happens when you kill too, and especially when you precisely maim or obliterate something. It's a reason to live, a replicating stasis.

Fig 1.2 Sequence in a video game

Video games are death reanimated. You recurse through the underworld toward an illusion. Everything in a decision and logic attaches permanently to your fingerprint. At the core, you use its energy to soar, comatose, back into the biosphere, possibly because the formal structure of a mind by human standards is useful in the next world.

November 9, 2013

Food Spring - Watermelon Stage

Getting the fruit as far as possible is the object of each level, collecting bigger, more valuable guns. The final result is determined by the size of the fruits' collection when the monkey arrives in North America and either survives or perishes in the fruits' attack.

Watermelon Peach
Pineapple Grapes
September 13, 2013

from array import array
from time import sleep

import pygame
from pygame.mixer import Sound, get_init, pre_init

class Note(Sound):

    def __init__(self, frequency, volume=.1):
        self.frequency = frequency
        Sound.__init__(self, self.build_samples())

    def build_samples(self):
        period = int(round(get_init()[0] / self.frequency))
        samples = array("h", [0] * period)
        amplitude = 2 ** (abs(get_init()[1]) - 1) - 1
        for time in xrange(period):
            if time < period / 2:
                samples[time] = amplitude
                samples[time] = -amplitude
        return samples

if __name__ == "__main__":
    pre_init(44100, -16, 1, 1024)

This program generates and plays a 440 Hz tone for 5 seconds. It can be extended to generate the spectrum of notes with a frequency table or the frequency formula. Because the rewards in Send are idealized ocean waves, they can also be represented as tones. Each level has a tone in its goal and a tone based on where the player's disc lands. Both play at the end of a level, sounding harmonic for a close shot and discordant for a near miss. The game can dynamically create these tones using the program as a basis.

I'm also building an algorithmically generated song: Silk Routes (Scissored). Here is an example of how it sounds so far:

August 12, 2013

I've been researching tartan/plaid recently for decoration in my updated version of Ball & Cup, now called Send. I want to create the atmosphere of a sports event, so I plan on drawing tartan patterns at the vertical edges of the screen as backgrounds for areas where spectator ants generate based on player performance. I figured I would make my own patterns, but after browsing tartans available in the official register, I decided to use existing ones instead.

I made a list of the tartans that had what I thought were interesting titles and chose 30 to base the game's levels on. I sequenced them, using their titles to form a loose narrative related to the concept of sending. Here are three tartans in the sequence (levels 6, 7 and 8) generated by an algorithm I inferred by looking at examples that reads a tartan specification and draws its pattern using a simple dithering technique to blend the color stripes.



Spice Apple

It would be wasting an opportunity if I didn't animate the tartans, so I'm thinking about animations for them. One effect I want to try is making them look like water washing over the area where the ants are spectating. I've also recorded some music for the game. Here are the loops for the game over and high scores screens.

Game Over

High Scores

June 29, 2013

A few weeks ago, for Fishing Jam, I made a fishing simulation from what was originally designed to be a time attack arcade game. In the program, Dark Stew, the player controls Aphids, an anthropod who fishes for aquatic creatures living in nine pools of black water.

Fishing means waiting by the pool with the line in. The longer you wait before pulling the line out, the more likely a creature will appear. Aside from walking, it's the only interaction in the game. The creatures are drawings of things you maybe could find underwater in a dream.

The background music is a mix of clips from licensed to share songs on the Free Music Archive. Particularly, Seed64 is an album I used a lot of songs from. The full list of music credits is in the game's README file.

I'm still planning to use the original design in a future version. There would be a reaction-based mini game for catching fish, and the goal would be to catch as many fish as possible within the time limit. I also want to add details and obstacles to the background, which is now a little boring, being a plain, tiled, white floor.

If you want to look at all the drawings or hear the music in the context of the program, there are Windows and source versions available. The source should work on any system with Python and Pygame. If it doesn't, bug reports are much appreciated. Comments are also welcome :)

Dark Stew: Windows, Pygame Source

I wrote in my last post that I would be working on an old prototype about searching a cloud for organisms for Fishing Jam. I decided to wait a while before developing that game, tentatively titled Xenographic Barrier. Its main interactive element is a first-person scope/flashlight, so I'd like to make a Wii version of it.

I'm about to start working on a complete version of Ball & Cup. If I make anything interesting for it, I'll post something. There are a lot of other things I want to write about, like game analyses, my new GP2X and arcades in Korea, and there's still music to release. Lots of fun stuff coming!

May 19, 2013

Welcome! I will be posting here about open-source games and music I am making for free online distribution. Most recently, I made Ball & Cup for Ludum Dare 26, a game I will work on more in June. After finishing, if it's fun, I will build an arcade cabinet for it! Next week, I am joining the 7-Day Fishing Jam to develop an A-life prototype about searching a cloud of noise for organisms.

Before Ball & Cup, I was adding features like vehicle engines, new graphics and effects and detailed scoring to an updated version of E.S.P. Hadouken, currently a prototype about navigating five psychic hadoukens to save your Game Boy. The new version will be similar with a clearer story and more ways to judge your performance. I plan on finishing it after making a public version of Ball & Cup.

I will also upload some digital albums soon. One, Man's Womb, is a solo collection of chiptunes from Emoticon Vs. Rainbow, an online racing/rhythm game. The other, Tor Ghul/Spin Ghul is a guitar and synth record recorded with my friends last summer. The recording and sequencing are finished for both -- I just have to make their web pages and artwork and package them for downloading.

Later, I hope to write about games in their early stages, an abstract action-RPG called Panopticon: Swarm, a massively multiplayer exploration, voting, post-catastrophic city simulation, Vomit Inspector and a mobile mini-game compilation project that includes an external digital pet raising and social networking mode. I also plan to post analyses of games I'm playing as a design exercise and for fun.

I will write about more game stuff like arcade trips, game jams and electronics! Plus whatever I haven't thought of! If you use RSS, subscribe to my feed!

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