#!/usr/bin/python

from Itemizer import *

if __name__ == "__main__":
    Itemizer()
import os
import Itemizer
from Item import *

class Album:

    def __init__(self, directory_path, delimiter, copy, simulate, verbosity,
                 regroup, no_name):
        self.set_options(delimiter, copy, simulate, verbosity, regroup, no_name)
        self.set_directory_path(directory_path)
        self.initialize_item_list()

    def set_options(self, delimiter, copy, simulate, verbosity, regroup,
                    no_name):
        self.delimiter = delimiter
        self.copy = copy
        self.simulate = simulate
        self.verbosity = verbosity
        self.regroup = regroup
        self.no_name = no_name

    def set_directory_path(self, directory_path):
        if not os.path.isdir(directory_path):
            print "Directory not found:", directory_path
            directory_path = None
        else:
            directory_path = os.path.join(directory_path, "")
        self.directory_path = directory_path

    def initialize_item_list(self):
        self.items = None
        if self.directory_path != None:
            for file_name in os.listdir(self.directory_path):
                path = self.directory_path + file_name
                if Itemizer.Itemizer.is_item(path):
                    number = Itemizer.Itemizer.extract_item_number(path)
                    self.add_items(path, number)

    def add_items(self, paths, index=None):
        if type(paths) == str:
            paths = [paths]
        current_index = self.build_index(index)
        for path in paths:
            if not os.path.isfile(path):
                print "File not found:", path
            else:
                if self.items == None:
                    self.add_first_item(path, current_index)
                else:
                    self.items = self.items.remove_path(path)
                    if self.items == None:
                        self.add_first_item(path, current_index)
                    else:
                        self.items = self.items.insert(path, current_index)
                if current_index:
                    current_index += 1
                if self.verbosity > 1:
                    print "Added file to list:", path

    def build_index(self, index):
        if type(index) == str:
            index = int(index)
        return index

    def add_first_item(self, path, index):
        if index == None:
            index = 1
        self.items = Item(path, index, self.no_name)

    def remove(self, paths):
        current = self.items
        while current != None:
            path = self.find_path_in_list(current.path, paths)
            if path:
                outgoing = current
                self.items = self.items.remove_path(outgoing.path)
                outgoing.erase_index()
                outgoing.save(
                    self.directory_path, None, self.delimiter, self.copy,
                    self.simulate, self.verbosity)
                paths.remove(path)
            current = current.next

    def find_path_in_list(self, key, paths):
        for path in paths:
            if os.path.samefile(key, path):
                return path

    def commit(self):
        if self.directory_path != None and self.items != None:
            if self.regroup:
                self.items.bunch()
            current = self.items
            prefix_length = self.determine_prefix_length()
            while current != None:
                current.save(
                    self.directory_path, prefix_length, self.delimiter,
                    self.copy, self.simulate, self.verbosity)
                current = current.next

    def print_items(self):
        current = self.items
        while current != None:
            print current
            current = current.next

    def determine_prefix_length(self):
        largest_index = self.items.get_largest_index()
        return len(str(largest_index))
import os
import re
import shutil

class Item:

    def __init__(self, path, index, no_name):
        self.path = path
        self.index = index
        self.no_name = no_name
        self.next = None

    def __str__(self):
        return str(self.index) + "\t" + self.path

    def __len__(self):
        ii = 0
        current = self
        while current != None:
            ii += 1
            current = current.next
        return ii

    def insert(self, path, index=None):
        head = self
        previous = head.advance_to_index_predecessor(index)
        if index == None:
            index = previous.index + 1
        item = Item(path, index, self.no_name)
        if previous != None:
            item.next = previous.next
            previous.next = item
        else:
            item.next = head
            head = item
        item.increase_indices()
        return head

    def advance_to_index_predecessor(self, index=None):
        previous = None
        current = self
        while current != None:
            if index != None and current.index >= index:
                break
            previous = current
            current = current.next
        return previous

    def increase_indices(self):
        current = self.next
        previous_index = self.index
        while current != None and current.index == previous_index:
            current.index += 1
            previous_index += 1
            current = current.next

    def remove_path(self, path):
        head = self
        current = head
        previous = None
        while current != None:
            if os.path.samefile(path, current.path):
                if previous != None:
                    previous.next = current.next
                else:
                    head = current.next
                break
            previous = current
            current = current.next
        return head

    def bunch(self):
        index = 1
        current = self
        while current != None:
            current.index = index
            index += 1
            current = current.next

    def erase_index(self):
        self.index = None

    def save(self, directory_path, prefix_length, delimiter, copy, simulate,
             verbosity):
        name = self.extract_name()
        name = name.lstrip(delimiter)
        prefix = self.build_prefix(prefix_length)
        if self.no_name:
            file_name = prefix + self.extract_extension(name)
        else:
            file_name = prefix + delimiter + name
        path = os.path.join(directory_path, file_name)
        self.write_path(path, copy, simulate, verbosity)

    def build_prefix(self, prefix_length):
        prefix = ""
        if self.index != None:
            prefix = str(self.index).zfill(prefix_length)
        return prefix

    def extract_extension(self, name):
        return "." + name.split(".")[-1]

    def write_path(self, path, copy, simulate, verbosity):
        if not os.path.isfile(path) or not os.path.samefile(self.path, path):
            if not simulate:
                if copy:
                    shutil.copy(self.path, path)
                else:
                    shutil.move(self.path, path)
            if verbosity > 0:
                print "Wrote:", self.path, "=>", path

    def get_largest_index(self):
        current = self
        while current.next:
            current = current.next
        return current.index

    def extract_name(self):
        file_name = os.path.basename(self.path)
        match = re.match("^[0-9]*(.*)", file_name)
        return match.group(1)
3.83.192.109
3.83.192.109
3.83.192.109
 
September 26, 2017

I made a video about my game Picture Processing for Out of Index 2017! Here is the video along with a transcript.

To save memory, video games are designed to repeat graphics. In raster-based games, image files like textures, tiles and sprites are loaded once into memory and drawn repeatedly by the program to create environments, characters, animations and text. In my puzzle game, 8 by 8 pixel tiles are used to create scenes the player has to recreate. For level 1, the tiles are a cloud, a tree, a mushroom, a character, sky, ground and rock.

An algorithm scrambles the tiles so that each tile is in the wrong memory address at the beginning of a level and the screen looks like a graphics glitch. When level 1 begins, the clouds may be where the trees should be, the mushrooms may be floating in the sky and the character may be switched with rock or the ground. The player's task is to put the tiles where they belong by swapping each tile with a tile in another memory address.

There are five levels, in order of difficulty, based on classic video games or classic video game genres.

The name of this game is taken from the Picture Processing Unit, a microprocessor designed by Nintendo for the Nintendo Entertainment System. The PPU is the hardware component responsible for translating image data into video signals for televisions and screens. It does this with a memory of 8 by 8 pixel tile data, which, along with palette and sprite attribute memory, generates each frame of a video game.

Companies often create lofty, evocative titles for hardware and products. What does the name Picture Processing Unit mean if we consider pictures something independent of a video screen? The phrase picture processing evokes the phrase image processing, a technique used to create applications such as automatic facial and emotion recognition. We often anthropomorphize electronic devices, infusing them with intelligence and souls, forgetting how much more infinitely complex the human mind is compared to a digital processor.

The game is named as a reference to Nintendo's microprocessor because the graphics are tile based, but it is also a reference to the players who are image processors, interpreting a picture from something deterministic into something non-deterministic.

The prototype of this game was created for a game jam called A Game By Its Cover where designers created video games based on imagined Nintendo game cartridges created by visual artists for an exhibition called My Famicase.

Picture Processing is based on one of the imagined cartridges from that exhibition. The cartridge's cover depicts a grid of unordered tiles and is described as a game where one inserts a game cartridge, sees a glitching screen, and meditates about the concept of beauty in imperfection. I added the idea that the player meditates into a state of transcendence until they are able to fix the game's graphics by accessing the memory telepathically.